Apalache operators

In addition to the standard TLA+ operators described in the previous section, Apalache defines a number of operators, which do not belong to the core language of TLA+, but which Apalache uses to provide clarity, efficiency, or special functionality. These operators belong to the module Apalache, and can be used in any specification by declaring EXTENDS Apalache.

Assignment

Notation: v' := e

LaTeX notation: coloneq

Arguments: Two arguments. The first is a primed variable name, the second is arbitrary.

Apalache type: (a, a) => Bool, for some type a

Effect: The expression v' := e evaluates to v' = e. At the level of Apalache static analysis, such expressions indicate parts of an action, where the value of a state-variable in a successor state is determined. See here for more details about assignments in Apalache.

Determinism: Deterministic.

Errors: If the first argument is not a primed variable name, or if the assignment operator is used where assignments are prohibited, Apalache statically reports an error.

Example in TLA+:

x' := 1                   \* x' = 1 
x' := (y = z)             \* x' = (y = z) 
x' := (y' := z)           \* x' = (y' = z) in TLC, assignment error in Apalache 
x' := 1 \/ x' := 2        \* x' = 1 \/ x' = 2 
x' := 1 /\ x' := 2        \* FALSE in TLC, assignment error in Apalache
x' := 1 \/ x' := "a"      \* Type error in Apalache 
(x' + 1) := 1             \* (x' + 1) = 1 in TLC, assignment error in Apalache 
IF x' := 1 THEN 1 ELSE 0  \* Assignment error in Apalache

Example in Python:

>> a = 1          # a' := 1
>> a == 1         # a' = 1
True
>> a = b = "c"    # b' := "c" /\ a' := b'
>> a = (b == "c") # a' := (b = "c")

Non-deterministically guess a value

Notation: Guess(S)

LaTeX notation: Guess(S)

Arguments: One argument: a finite set S, possibly empty.

Apalache type: Set(a) => a, for some type a.

Effect: Non-deterministically pick a value out of the set S, if S is non-empty. If S is empty, return some value of the proper type.

Determinism: Non-deterministic if S is non-empty, that is, two subsequent calls to Guess(S) may return x, y \in S that can differ (x /= y) or may be equal (x = y). Moreover, Apalache considers all possible combinations of elements of S in the model checking mode. If S is empty, Guess(S) produces the same value of proper type.

Errors: If S is not a set, Apalache reports an error.

Example in TLA+:

/\ 1 = Guess({ 1, 2, 3 })         \* TRUE or FALSE
/\ 2 = Guess({ 1, 2, 3 })         \* TRUE or FALSE
/\ 3 = Guess({ 1, 2, 3 })         \* TRUE or FALSE
/\ 4 /= Guess({ 1, 2, 3 })        \* TRUE
/\ Guess({ 1, 2, 3 }) \in Int     \* TRUE

Value generators

Notation: Gen(bound)

LaTeX notation: Gen(bound)

Arguments: One argument: an integer literal or a constant expression (of the integer type).

Apalache type: Int => a, for some type a.

Effect: A generator of a data structure. Given a positive integer bound, and assuming that the type of the operator application is known, we recursively generate a TLA+ data structure as a tree, whose width is bound by the number bound.

Determinism: The generated data structure is unrestricted. It is effectively implementing data non-determinism.

Errors: If the type of Gen cannot be inferred from its application context, or if bound is not an integer, Apalache reports an error.

Example in TLA+:

\* produce an unrestricted integer
LET \* @type: Int;
    oneInt == Gen(1)
IN
\* produce a set of integers up to 10 elements
LET \* @type: Set(Int);
    setOfInts == Gen(10)
IN
\* produce a sequence of up to 10 elements
\* that are integers up to 10 elements each
LET \* @type: Seq(Set(Int));
    sequenceOfInts == Gen(10)
IN
...

Folding

The operators ApaFoldSet and ApaFoldSeqLeft are explained in more detail in a dedicated section here.


Convert a set of pairs to a function

Notation: SetAsFun(S)

LaTeX notation: SetAsFun(S)

Arguments: One argument: A set of pairs S, which may be empty.

Apalache type: Set(<<a, b>>) => (a -> b), for some types a and b.

Effect: Convert a set of pairs S to a function F, with the property that F(x) = y => <<x,y>> \in S. Note that if S contains at least two pairs <<x, y>> and <<x, z>>, such that y /= z, then F is not uniquely defined. We use CHOOSE to resolve this ambiguity. The operator SetAsFun can be defined as follows:

SetAsFun(S) ==
    LET Dom == { x: <<x, y>> \in S }
        Rng == { y: <<x, y>> \in S }
    IN
    [ x \in Dom |-> CHOOSE y \in Rng: <<x, y>> \in S ]

Apalache implements a more efficient encoding of this operator than the default one.

Determinism: Deterministic.

Errors: If S is ill-typed, Apalache reports an error.

Example in TLA+:

SetAsFun({ <<1, 2>>, <<3, 4>> }) = [x \in { 1, 3 } |-> x + 1]   \* TRUE
SetAsFun({}) = [x \in {} |-> x]                                 \* TRUE
LET F == SetAsFun({ <<1, 2>>, <<1, 3>>, <<1, 4>> }) IN
  \* this is all we can guarantee, when the relation is non-deterministic
  \/ F = [x \in { 1 } |-> 2]
  \/ F = [x \in { 1 } |-> 3]
  \/ F = [x \in { 1 } |-> 4]

Construct a sequence

Notation: MkSeq(n, F)

LaTeX notation: MkSeq(n, F)

Arguments: Two arguments: sequence length n (a constant integer expression), and element constructor F(i).

Apalache type: (Int, (Int => a)) => Seq(a), for some type a.

Effect: Produce the sequence of n elements <<F(1), .., F(n)>>.

Determinism: Deterministic.

Errors: If n is not a constant, or is negative, Apalache reports an error.

Example in TLA+:

LET Double(i) == 2 * i IN
MkSeq(3, Double) = <<2, 4, 6>>   \* TRUE

Interpret a function as a sequence

Notation: FunAsSeq(fn, len, maxLen)

LaTeX notation: FunAsSeq(fn, len, maxLen)

Arguments: Three arguments:

  • A function fn that should be interpreted as a sequence.
  • An integer len, denoting the length of the sequence, with the property 1..len \subseteq DOMAIN fn. Apalache does not check this requirement. It is up to the user to ensure that it holds. This expression is not necessarily constant.
  • An integer constant maxLen, which is an upper bound on len, that is, len <= maxLen.

Apalache type: (Int -> a, Int, Int) => Seq(a), for some type a

Effect: The expression FunAsSeq(fn, len, maxLen) evaluates to the sequence << fn[1], ..., fn[Min(len, maxLen)] >>.

Determinism: Deterministic.

Errors: If the types of fn, len or maxLen do not match the expected types, Apalache statically reports a type error. Additionally, if it is not the case that 1..len \subseteq DOMAIN fn, the result is undefined.

Example in TLA+:

Head([ x \in 1..5 |-> x * x ])                \* 1 in TLC, type error in Apalache
FunAsSeq([ x \in 1..5 |-> x * x ], 3, 3)      \* <<1,4,9>>
Head(FunAsSeq([ x \in 1..5 |-> x * x ], 3, 3)) \* 1
FunAsSeq(<<1,2,3>>, 3, 3)                     \* <<1,2,3>> in TLC, type error in Apalache
FunAsSeq([ x \in {0,42} |-> x * x ], 3, 3)    \* UNDEFINED

Example in Python:

# define a TLA+-like dictionary via a python function
def boundedFn(f, dom):
  return { x: f(x) for x in dom }

# this is how we could define funAsSeq in python
def funAsSeq(f, length, maxLen):
  return [ f.get(i) for i in range(1, min(length, maxLen) + 1) ]

# TLA+: [ x \in 1..5 |-> x * x ]
f = boundedFn(lambda x: x * x, range(1,6))
# TLA+: [ x \in {0, 42} |-> x * x ]
g = boundedFn(lambda x: x * x, {0, 42})
>>> f[1]
1
>>> funAsSeq(f, 3, 3)
[1, 4, 9]
>>> funAsSeq(f, 3, 3)[1]
1
>>> funAsSeq(g, 3, 3)
[None, None, None]

Skolemization Hint

Notation: Skolem(e)

LaTeX notation: Skolem(e)

Arguments: One argument. Must be an expression of the form \E x \in S: P.

Apalache type: (Bool) => Bool

Effect: The expression Skolem(\E x \in S: P) provides a hint to Apalache, that the existential quantification may be skolemized. It evaluates to the same value as \E x \in S: P.

Determinism: Deterministic.

Errors: If e is not a Boolean expression, throws a type error. If it is Boolean, but not an existentially quantified expression, throws a StaticAnalysisException.

Note: This is an operator produced internally by Apalache. You may see instances of this operator, when reading the .tla side-outputs of various passes. Manual use of this operator is discouraged and, in many cases, not supported.

Example in TLA+:

Skolem( \E x \in {1,2}: x = 1 ) \* TRUE
Skolem( 1 )                     \* 1 in TLC, type error in Apalache
Skolem( TRUE )                  \* TRUE in TLC, error in Apalache

Set expansion

Notation: Expand(S)

LaTeX notation: Expand(S)

Arguments: One argument. Must be either SUBSET SS or [T1 -> T2].

Apalache type: (Set(a)) => Set(a), for some a.

Effect: The expression Expand(S) provides instructions to Apalache, that the large set S (powerset or set of functions) should be explicitly constructed as a finite set, overriding Apalache's optimizations for dealing with such collections. It evaluates to the same value as S.

Determinism: Deterministic.

Errors: If e is not a set, throws a type error. If the expression is a set, but is not of the form SUBSET SS or [T1 -> T2], throws a StaticAnalysisException.

Note: This is an operator produced internally by Apalache. You may see instances of this operator, when reading the .tla side-outputs of various passes. Manual use of this operator is discouraged and, in many cases, not supported.

Example in TLA+:

Expand( SUBSET {1,2} ) \* {{},{1},{2},{1,2}}
Expand( {1,2} )        \* {1,2} in TLC, error in Apalache
Expand( 1 )            \* 1 in TLC, type error in Apalache

Cardinality Hint

Notation: ConstCardinality(e)

LaTeX notation: ConstCardinality(e)

Arguments: One argument. Must be an expression of the form Cardinality(S) >= k.

Apalache type: (Bool) => Bool

Effect: The expression ConstCardinality(Cardinality(S) >= k) provides a hint to Apalache, that Cardinality(S) is a constant, allowing Apalache to encode the constraint e without attempting to dynamically encode Cardinality(S). It evaluates to the same value as e`.

Determinism: Deterministic.

Errors: If S is not a Boolean expression, throws a type error. If it is Boolean, but not an existentially quantified expression, throws a StaticAnalysisException.

Note: This is an operator produced internally by Apalache. You may see instances of this operator, when reading the .tla side-outputs of various passes. Manual use of this operator is discouraged and, in many cases, not supported.

Example in TLA+:

Skolem( \E x \in {1,2}: x = 1 ) \* TRUE
Skolem( 1 )                     \* 1 in TLC, type error in Apalache
Skolem( TRUE )                  \* TRUE in TLC, error in Apalache