# Option Types

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Option types are useful when you want to internalize reasoning about partial functions. A simple motivating example is division over integers, for which n/0 is undefined.

The basic idea is as follows: given a partial function f : A -> B, we form the type Option(B) by extending B with an element representing a missing value, None, and lift each value b in B to Some(b), allowing us to represent the partial function pf : A -> Option(B), such that, for each a in A, pf(a) = Some(f(a)) iff f(a) is defined, and None otherwise.

Apalache leverages its support for variants to define a polymorphic option type along with some common utility functions in the module Option.tla.

The module defines a type alias $option as \* @typeAlias: option = Some(a) | None(UNIT);  However, due to the current lack of support for polymorphic aliases, this alias has limited utility, and parametric option types can only be properly expressed by writing out the full variant type Some(a) | None(UNIT). Nonetheless, in this manual page, we will sometimes write $option(a) as a shorthand for the type Some(a) | None(UNIT).

In the context of TLA+, our encoding of option types is generalized over "partial operators", meaning operators which return a value of type $option(a). Support for partial functions is supplied by two operators, OptionPartialFun and OptionFunApp. ## Operators ### Constructing present optional values Notation: Some(v) LaTeX notation: same Apalache type: (a) => Some(a) | None(UNIT), for some type a. Arguments: The value v of type a to be lifted into the option. Effect: Produces a new value of the optional type. Determinism: Deterministic. Errors: No errors. Example in TLA+: \* @type: Some(Int) | None(UNIT); SomeInt == Some(42)  ### Constructing absent optional values Notation: None LaTeX notation: same Apalache type: Some(a) | None(UNIT), for some type a. Arguments: None Effect: Produces a representation of an absent value. Determinism: Deterministic. Errors: No errors. Example in TLA+: \* @type: Some(Int) | None(UNIT); NoInt == None  ### Checking for presence or absence of a value Notation: IsSome(o) or IsNone(o) LaTeX notation: same Apalache type: (Some(a) | None(UNIT)) => Bool, for some type a. Arguments: One argument: a value of type $option(a) for some type a.

Effect: These operators are TRUE or FALSE depending on whether the optional value is present or absent, in the expected way.

Determinism: Deterministic.

Errors: No errors.

Example in TLA+:

TRUE = IsSome(Some(5)) /\ IsNone(None)


### Case analysis and elimination of optional values

Notation: OptionCase(o, caseSome, caseNone)

LaTeX notation: same

Apalache type: (Some(a) | None(UNIT), a => b, UNIT => b) => b, for some types a and b.

Arguments:

• o an optional value
• caseSome is an operator to be applied to a present value
• caseNone is an operator to be applied to the UNIT if the value is absent

Effect: OptionCase(o, caseSome, caseNone) is caseSome(v) if o = Some(v), or else caseNone(UNIT). This is a way of eliminating a value of type Option(a) to produce a value of type b.

Determinism: Deterministic.

Errors: No errors.

Example in TLA+:

/\ LET
\* @type: Int => Int;
caseSome(x) == x + 1
IN LET
\* @type: UNIT => Int;
caseNone(u) == 0
IN
OptionCase(Some(3), caseSome, caseNone) = 4
/\ LET
\* @type: Int => Str;
caseSome(x) == "Some Number"
IN LET
\* @type: UNIT => Str;
caseNone(u) == "None"
IN
OptionCase(None, caseSome, caseNone) = "None"


### Sequencing application of partial operators

Notation: OptionFlatMap(f, o)

LaTeX notation: same

Apalache type: (a => Some(b) | None(UNIT), Some(a) | None(UNIT)) => Some(b) | None(UNIT), for some types a and b.

Arguments:

• f is a partial operator
• o an optional value

Effect: OptionFlatMap(f, o) is f(v) if o = Some(v), or else None.

Determinism: Deterministic.

Errors: No errors.

Example in TLA+:

LET incr(n) == Some(n + 1) IN
LET fail(n) == None IN
LET q == OptionFlatMap(incr, Some(1)) IN
LET r == OptionFlatMap(incr, q) IN
LET s == OptionFlatMap(fail, r) IN
/\ r = Some(3)
/\ s = None


### Unwrapping optional values

Notation: OptionGetOrElse(o, default)

LaTeX notation: same

Apalache type: (Some(a) | None(UNIT), a) => a, for some type a.

Arguments:

• o an optional value
• default is a default value to return

Effect: OptionGetOrElse(o, default) is v iff o = Some(v), or else default.

Determinism: Deterministic.

Errors: No errors.

Example in TLA+:

\* @type: Set(Int) => Some(Int) | None(UNIT);
MaxSet(s) ==
LET max(oa, b) ==
IF OptionGetOrElse(oa, b) > b
THEN oa
ELSE Some(b)
IN
ApaFoldSet(max, None, s)


### Converting optional values

#### Converting to sequences

Notation: OptionToSeq(o)

LaTeX notation: same

Apalache type: (Some(a) | None(UNIT)) => Seq(a), for some type a.

Arguments:

• o an optional value

Effect: OptionToSeq(o) is <<v>> iff o = Some(v), or else <<>>.

Determinism: Deterministic.

Errors: No errors.

Example in TLA+:

LET \* @type: Seq(Int);
empty == <<>>
IN
/\ OptionToSeq(None) = empty
/\ OptionToSeq(Some(1)) = <<1>>


#### Converting to sets

Notation: OptionToSet(o)

LaTeX notation: same

Apalache type: (Some(a) | None(UNIT)) => Seq(a), for some type a.

Arguments:

• o an optional value

Effect: OptionToSet(o) is like OptionToSeq, but producing a set.

Determinism: Deterministic.

Errors: No errors.

Example in TLA+:

LET \* @type: Set(Int);
empty == {}
IN
/\ OptionToSet(None) = empty
/\ OptionToSet(Some(1)) = {1}


### Obtaining an optional value from a set

Notation: OptionGuess(s)

LaTeX notation: same

Apalache type: Set(a) => Some(a) | None(UNIT), for some type a.

Arguments:

• s is a set

Effect: OptionGuess(s) is None if s = {}, otherwise it is Some(x), where x \in s. x is selected from s nondeterministically.

Determinism: Nondeterministic.

Errors: No errors.

Example in TLA+:

LET
\* @type: Set(Int);
empty == {}
IN
/\ OptionGuess(empty) = None
/\ LET choices == {1,2,3,4} IN
LET choice == OptionGuess(choices) IN
VariantGetUnsafe("Some", choice) \in choices


### Apply a function to a partial value

Notation: OptionFunApp(f, o)

LaTeX notation: same

Apalache type: (a -> b, Some(a) | None(UNIT)) => Some(b) | None(UNIT)

Arguments:

• f is a function
• o is an optional value

Effect: OptionFunApp(f, o) is Some(f[v]) if o = Some(v) or else None.

Determinism: Deterministic.

Errors: No errors.

Example in TLA+:

LET f == [x \in 1..3 |-> x + 1] IN
/\ OptionFunApp(f, Some(1)) = Some(2)
/\ OptionFunApp(f, None) = None


### Extend a total function into a partial function

Notation: OptionPartialFun(f, undef)

LaTeX notation: same

Apalache type: (a -> b, Set(a)) => (a -> Some(b) | None(UNIT))

Arguments:

• f is a total function
• undef is a set of values for which the new function is to be "undefined"

Effect: OptionPartialFun(f, undef) is a function mapping each value in undef to None, and each value x \in (DOMAIN f \ undef) to Some(f[x]). This can be used to extend a total function into a "partial function" whose domain is extended to include the values in 'undef'.

Determinism: Deterministic.

Errors: No errors.

Example in TLA+:

LET def == 1..3 IN
LET undef == 4..10 IN
LET f == [x \in def |-> x + 1] IN
LET pf == OptionPartialFun(f, undef) IN
/\ \A n \in def: pf[n] = Some(n + 1)
/\ \A n \in undef: pf[n] = None