# Antipatterns

This page collects known antipaterns (APs) when writing TLA+ for Apalache. In this context, APs are syntactic forms or specification approaches that, for one reason or another, have particularly slow/complex encodings for the target model checker. For a pattern to be an AP, there must exist a known, equivalent, efficient pattern.

Often, APs arise from a user's past experiences with writing TLA+ for TLC, or from a direct translation of imperative OOP code into TLA+, as those follow a different paradigm, and therefore entail different cost evaluation of which expressions are slow/complex and which are not.

`CHOOSE`

-based recursion

Often, operators that represent operations over sets have the following shape:

```
RECURSIVE F(_)
F(S) ==
IF S == {}
THEN v
ELSE
LET e == CHOOSE x \in S: TRUE
IN G(F( S \ {e} ), e )
```

For example, one can implement `min/max`

operators this way:

```
RECURSIVE min(_)
min(S) ==
IF S == {}
THEN Infinity
ELSE
LET e == CHOOSE x \in S: TRUE
IN LET minOther == min( S \ {e} )
IN IF e < minOther THEN e ELSE minOther
```

Apalache dislikes the use of the above, for several reasons. Firstly, since the operator is `RECURSIVE`

, Apalache does not support it after version 0.23.1. In earlier versions Apalache requires a predefined upper bound on unrolling, which means that the user must know, ahead of time, what the largest `|S|`

is, for any set `S`

, to which this operator is ever applied.
In addition, computing `F`

for a set `S`

of size `n = |S|`

requires `n`

encodings of a `CHOOSE`

operation, which can be considerably expensive in Apalache.
Lastly, Apalache also needs to encode all of the the `n`

intermediate sets, `S \ {e1}`

, `(S \ {e1}) \ {e2}`

, `((S \ {e1}) \ {e2}) \ {e3}`

, and so on.

The AP above can be replaced by a very simple pattern:

```
F(S) == ApaFoldSet( G, v, S )
```

`ApaFoldSet`

(and `ApaFoldSeqLeft`

) were introduced precisely for these scenarios, and should be used over `RECURSIVE + CHOOSE`

in most cases.

## Incremental computation

Often, users introduce an expression `Y`

, which is derived from another expression `X`

(`Y == F(X)`

, for some `F`

). Instead of defining `Y`

directly, in terms of the properties it possesses, it is possible to define all the intermediate steps of transforming `X`

into `Y`

: "`X`

is slightly changed into `X1`

(e.g. by adding one element to a set, or via `EXCEPT`

), which is changed into `X2`

, etc. until `Xn = Y`

". Doing this in Apalache is almost always a bad idea, if a direct characterization of `Y`

exists.

Concretely, the following constructs are APs:

- Incremental
`EXCEPT`

```
G ==
LET F(g, x) == [g EXCEPT ![x] = A(x)]
IN ApaFoldSet(F, f, S)
```

- Incremental
`\union`

```
R ==
LET F(T, e) == T \union {A(e)}
IN ApaFoldSet(F, S0, S)
```

- Chained
`@@/:>`

```
f == ( k1 :> A(k1) ) @@ ( k2 :> A(k2) ) @@ ... @@ ( kn :> A(kn) )
```

For example:

```
f == [ x \in 1..20 |-> 0 ]
Y ==
LET F(g, x) == [g EXCEPT ![x] = x * x]
IN ApaFoldSet(F, f, 7..12 )
```

TLC likes these sorts of operations, because it manipulates programming-language objects in its own implementation. This makes it easy to construct temporary mutable objects, manipulate them (e.g. via for-loops) and garbage-collect them after they stop being useful. For constraint-based approaches, like Apalache, the story is different. Not only are these intermediate steps not directly useful (since Apalache is not modeling TLA+ expressions as objects in Sacala), they actually hurt performance, since they can generate a significant amount of constraints, which are all about describing data structures (e.g. two functions being almost equal, except at one point). Essentially, Apalache is spending its resources not on state-space exploration, but on in-state value computation, which is not its strong suit. Below we show how to rewrite these APs.

- Incremental
`EXCEPT`

: Replace

```
G ==
LET F(g, x) == [g EXCEPT ![x] = A(x)]
IN ApaFoldSet(F, f, S)
```

with

```
G ==
[ x \in DOMAIN f |->
IF x \in S
THEN A(x)
ELSE f[x]
]
```

- Incremental
`\union`

: Replace

```
R ==
LET F(T, e) == T \union {A(e)}
IN ApaFoldSet(F, S0, S)
```

with

```
R == S0 \union { A(e): e \in S }
```

- Iterated
`@@/:>`

: Replace

```
f == ( k1 :> A(k1) ) @@ ( k2 :> A(k2) ) @@ ... @@ ( kn :> A(kn) )
```

with

```
f == [ k \in {k1,...,kn} |-> A(k) ]
```